(Note: Louisa Catherine Johnson Adams was born in London, UK.)
Unless otherwise noted, all portraits are courtesy of the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division.
Portraits of Margaret “Peggy” Mackall Smith Taylor, Letitia Christian Tyler and Elizabeth Kortright Monroe are courtesy of the National First Ladies’ Library.
Information on the education of the First Ladies is from the National First Ladies’ Library.
© 2013 The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. All Rights Reserved.