Citation Guidelines: APA, MLA, and Turabian

Here are some examples of citation formats for the specific types of content you are likely encounter on the Gilder Lehrman website: essays, multimedia, featured primary sources, and primary sources. We have included APA, MLA, and Turabian formats. The examples below are suggested models, and you should verify preferred citations of online materials with your teacher or department.

APA (6th edition)

These examples follow Concise Rules of APA Style, 6th ed. (Washington DC: American Psychological Association, 2010).

Essays

Featured Primary Sources

Multimedia

Primary Sources

MLA (7th edition)

These examples follow MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed. (New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009). MLA advises including the source medium (e.g., Web) and the access date. MLA also suggests eliminating the url, but we have shown it in the Lists of Works Cited examples in case your teacher or department wants it included.

Essays

Featured Primary Sources

Multimedia

Primary Sources

Turabian (8th edition)

These examples follow Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 8th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2013). The two different styles described in Turabian—notes-bibliography style and author-date style—are listed below.

Notes-Bibliography Style

Essays

Featured Primary Sources

Multimedia

Primary Sources

Author-Date Reference Style

Essays

Featured Primary Sources

Multimedia

Primary Sources

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