Henry Cabot Lodge (1850–1924) was an isolationist Republican senator who led opposition to American membership in the League of Nations after World War I. Lodge entered the Senate in 1893, after six years serving in the House of Representatives. He supported US involvement in World War I, but at the end of the war, he opposed President Woodrow Wilson’s efforts to create and commit to an international arbitration organization. Wilson had conceived of the League of Nations and pushed for its covenant to be included in the 1919 Treaty of Versailles ending the war. Lodge believed that membership in the League would threaten American sovereignty, and as chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, he introduced a series of amendments requiring Congressional approval of League decisions. Wilson refused Lodge’s amendments, and Lodge in turn led Congressional rejection of the treaty. In large part due to Lodge’s efforts, the United States never ratified the Treaty of Versailles or joined the League of Nations.

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