Henry Clinton (1730–1795) was the commander in chief of the British army from 1778 to 1782. Clinton was sent to the colonies in 1775 to serve under General Thomas Gage. When Gage was replaced by William Howe, Clinton assumed second in command. Clinton was responsible for the British success at Long Island in 1776 that nearly trapped Washington’s army. After Howe resigned in 1778, Clinton became commander in chief. In 1780, Clinton succeeded in capturing Charleston, but that victory was soon overshadowed by Cornwallis’s surrender at Yorktown in 1781. As commander in chief and Cornwallis’s superior, Clinton was blamed for the Yorktown defeat and soon resigned his command and returned to England.

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