Government and Civics

The essays in this section have been written by leading scholars of American history. They provide additional depth on events and ideas referred to in the introductory essay and, in some cases, different interpretations by historians looking at the same events. These essays are particularly useful in introducing your students to one of the most exciting aspects of studying history—understanding the past from a variety of perspectives.

Cover of Puck, November 25, 1903. (Library of Congress)

A History of the Thanksgiving Holiday

Author: Catherine Clinton Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Ford Local 600 of the CIO in the Labor Day parade in Detroit MI, 1942. (LOC P&P)

Labor Day: From Protest to Picnics

Author: Joshua B. Freeman Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
US Supreme Court Building, Washington, DC (Carol M. Highsmith Archive, LOC)

The Form and Function of the Supreme Court

Author: Charles Anthony Smith Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Destruction of the statue of George III in New York, 1776. (GLC)

The Invention of the Fourth of July

Author: David Waldstreicher Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
John Marshall and Roger B. Taney (Library of Congress Prints and Photographs)

The Marshall and Taney Courts: Continuities and Changes

Author: R. B. Bernstein Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Supreme Court Then and Now

Author: A. E. Dick Howard Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Detail of a broadside promoting women’s suffrage. (GLC08963)

Why We the People? Citizens as Agents of Constitutional Change

Author: Linda R. Monk Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
The County Election, based on a painting by George C. Bingham, 1854. (Gilder Leh

Winning the Vote: A History of Voting Rights

Author: Steven Mintz Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Creating a New Government

Author: Gordon S. Wood Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:

Immigration and Migration

Author: Hasia Diner Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Populism and Agrarian Discontent

Author: Michael Kazin Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Age of Reagan

Author: Gil Troy Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels:

The Failure of Compromise

Author: Bruce Levine Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The First Age of Reform

Author: Ronald G. Walters Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Great Depression

Author: David M. Kennedy Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels:
GLC03585, Constitution. Printed Dunlap & Claypoole edition inscribed by Benjamin

The New Nation, 1783–1815

Author: Alan Taylor Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:

The Thirteen Colonies

Author: Francis J. Bremer Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:
British General Burgoyne (center left) surrenders to General Horatio Gates at Sa

The War for Independence

Author: Ray Raphael Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels:

World War I

Author: Jennifer D. Keene Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

9/11 and Springsteen

Author: Craig Werner Curriculum Subjects: Art, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Integrated class at Anacostia High School in Washington, DC, 1957. (Library of C

A Local and National Story: The Civil Rights Movement in Postwar Washington, DC

Author: Wendell E. Pritchett Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Barack Obama, January 13, 2009, one week before his inauguration as President of

A More Perfect Union? Barack Obama and the Politics of Unity

Author: Thomas J. Sugrue Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:
Million Native American March, 2003, Washington, DC. (Carol Highsmith, LOC)

A New Era of American Indian Autonomy

Author: Ned Blackhawk Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Martin Luther King Memorial March, April 4, 1998. (GLC08359)

A Place in History: Historical Perspective on Martin Luther King Jr. Day

Author: James Oliver Horton Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Abolitionist flag, ca. 1859. (Gilder Lehrman Collection)

Abolition and Antebellum Reform

Author: Ronald G. Walters Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
“Stump Speaking,” by George C. Bingham, 1856. (GLC04075)

Abraham Lincoln and Jacksonian Democracy

Author: Sean Wilentz Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
John Quincy Adams (Philadelphia: P. S. Duval, n.d.) (LOC LC-USZC4-5801)

Adams v. Jackson: The Election of 1824

Author: Edward G. Lengel Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:
Frederick Douglass to Maria Webb, Nov. 30, 1859. (GLC08360)

Admiration and Ambivalence: Frederick Douglass and John Brown

Author: David W. Blight Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
“Washington and Lafayette at Valley Forge,” by Brown & Bigelow, 1907. (LOC)

Advice (Not Taken) for the French Revolution from America

Author: Susan Dunn Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Frederick Douglass, ca. 1880s. (GLC07926.02)

Allies for Emancipation? Black Abolitionists and Abraham Lincoln

Author: Manisha Sinha Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Andrew Jackson and the Constitution

Author: Matthew Warshauer Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Andrew Jackson’s Shifting Legacy

Author: Daniel Feller Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
is Communism Un-American, by Eugene Dennis (1947). (National Archives)

Anti-Communism in the 1950s

Author: Wendy Wall Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels:

Different Perspectives on the Civil Rights Movement

Author: Anthony J. Badger Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
The Tribute in Light in remembrance of the September 11 attacks. Credit: US Air

Disasters and the Politics of Memory

Author: Kevin Rozario Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:
GLC04315

Early America’s Jewish Settlers

Author: Eli Faber Curriculum Subjects: Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels:
Commissioner of Labor Statistics explains loss of wages since 1929. (LOC, P&P)

Economic Policy through the Lens of History

Author: Roger E. A. Farmer Curriculum Subjects: Economics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Detail from a Harper’s Weekly cartoon by Thomas Nast, February 26, 1870. (LOC)

Education Reform in Antebellum America

Author: Barbara Winslow Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels:

Every Citizen a Soldier: World War II Posters on the American Home Front

Author: William L. Bird Jr. and Harry Rubenstein Curriculum Subjects: Art, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Adolf Hitler, n.d. (LOC) and Franklin Delano Roosevelt (GLC)

FDR and Hitler: A Study in Contrasts

Author: David M. Kennedy Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Supreme Court Justices, ca. 1940. Photograph by Harris & Ewing. (GLC)

FDR’s Court-Packing Plan: A Study in Irony

Author: Richard G. Menaker Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Franklin D. Roosevelt, c. December 27, 1933. (Library of Congress Prints and Pho

FDR’s First Inaugural Address

Author: Davis W. Houck Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels:
Rachel Jackson, ca. 1824, attributed to Mary C. Strobel. (GLC02793.019.02)

Female Trouble: Andrew Jackson versus the Ladies of Washington

Author: Catherine Allgor Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Advertisement for shares in the Union Pacific Railroad, Harper’s Weekly, August

Financing the Transcontinental Railroad

Author: Maury Klein Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, Government and Civics Grade Levels:
"Colored Man Is No Slacker," WWI poster, 1918 (GLC06134)

From These Honored Dead: Memorial Day and Veterans Day in American History

Author: Kenneth T. Jackson Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
“His Excel: G: Washington,” by C. W. Peale, 1787.(LC-DIG-ppmsca-17515)

George Washington and the Constitution

Author: Theodore J. Crackel Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Florida Certificate of Ascertainment 2000 (NARA)

Hanging by a Chad—or Not: The 2000 Presidential Election

Author: James Gormly Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:
“A View of the Town of Boston,” by Paul Revere, 1770, detail. (GLC02873)

History Times: The Colonial Era

Author: Gilder Lehrman Institute Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, Government and Civics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels: 2, 3, 4, 5

Indian Removal

Author: Theda Perdue Curriculum Subjects: Geography, Government and Civics Grade Levels:

Inventing American Diplomacy

Author: R. B. Bernstein Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
James Madison, by A. Newsam, Philadelphia, 1846. (LC-DIG-ppmsca-30581)

James Madison and the Constitution

Author: Jack Rakove Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
John Brown, ca. June 1859, painted photograph. (GLC04447)

John Brown: Villain or Hero?

Author: Steven Mintz Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Literature, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Lincoln

Author: Allen C. Guelzo Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Louisiana Native Guard in Port Hudson, Louisiana, 1863. (GLC09229)

Lincoln and Emancipation: Black Enfranchisement in 1863 Louisiana

Author: Richard J. Carwardine Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:
Walt Whitman, 1863 (Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division)

Lincoln and Whitman

Author: David S. Reynolds Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, Literature Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Lincoln at Cooper Union

Author: Harold Holzer Curriculum Subjects: Art, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Abraham Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1865. (GLC06044)

Lincoln’s Civil Religion

Author: George C. Rable Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Abraham Lincoln, by Mathew Brady, February 27, 1860. (GLC05136.01)

Lincoln’s Religion

Author: Richard Carwardine Curriculum Subjects: Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Lockean Liberalism and the American Revolution

Author: Isaac Kramnick Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Martha Washington. Gilder Lehrman Collection)

Martha Washington Creates the Role of First Lady

Author: Patricia Brady Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:
Detail from the Preamble to the US Constitution, 1787. (GLC03585)

Ordinary Americans and the Constitution

Author: Gary B. Nash Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Battery B, 338th Antiaircraft Artillery, ca. 1943. (Gilder Lehrman Collection)

Patriotism Crosses the Color Line: African Americans in World War II

Author: Clarence Taylor Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Official US Bulletin, January 29, 1919. (GLC01668)

Prohibition and Its Effects

Author: Lisa Andersen Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
The fugitive slave clause in Article 4, Section 2 of the US Constitution. (Gilde

Race and the American Constitution: A Struggle toward National Ideals

Author: James O. Horton Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Reconstruction and the Battle for Woman Suffrage

Author: Ellen DuBois Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
The front of the Alamo, 1922. (LC-USZ62-87798)

Remembering the Alamo

Author: Char Miller Curriculum Subjects: Geography, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Sandra Day O'Connor, ca. 1982. (Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Div.)

Sandra Day O’Connor: A Life of Action

Author: Meryl Justin Chertoff Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

September 11, 2001

Author: the National September 11 Memorial & Museum Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
George Sale, The Koran . . . 2 vols. London, 1764 (LOC, Rare Bks., S.1457)

Teaching American History to Muslim Exchange Students

Author: Ted Widmer Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Patent signed by James Buchanan, May 28, 1846. (Gilder Lehrman Collection)

Technology of the 1800s

Author: Brent D. Glass Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Civil Rights Movement: Major Events and Legacies

Author: James T. Patterson Curriculum Subjects: Art, Government and Civics, Literature Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Colonial Virginia Frontier and International Native American Diplomacy

Author: William White Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11

The Consequences of Defeat in Vietnam

Author: Mark Atwood Lawrence Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels:
“The Florida Case before the Electoral Commission,” Cornelia Fassett (US Senate)

The Contentious Election of 1876

Author: Michael F. Holt Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels:
Mace in the House Chamber (Office of the Clerk, US House of Representatives)

The Culture of Congress in the Age of Jackson

Author: Joanne B. Freeman Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Recueil des loix constitutives des colonies, 1778 (GLC01720)

The Declaration of Independence in Global Perspective

Author: David Armitage Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Emancipation Proclamation (Chicago: Rufus Blanchard, ca. 1863–64) (GLC05508.272)

The Emancipation Proclamation: Bill of Lading or Ticket to Freedom?

Author: Allen C. Guelzo Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Breadline in New York, ca. 1930. (Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Div.)

The Great Depression: An Overview

Author: David M. Kennedy Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The History of Women’s Baseball

Author: Kerry Candaele Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Franklin D. Roosevelt to Henry T. Rainey, June 10, 1933. (GLC)

The Hundred Days and Beyond: What Did the New Deal Accomplish?

Author: Anthony J. Badger Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Indian peace medal, 1829. (GLC02772.02)

The Indian Removal Act

Author: Elliott West Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Genl. Burgoyne Addressing the Indians

The Indians’ War of Independence

Author: Colin G. Calloway Curriculum Subjects: Geography, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Union Stock Yards, Chicago, 1903. (LC-USZ62-51793)

The Jungle and the Progressive Era

Author: Robert W. Cherny Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Korean War

Author: Allan R. Millett Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The League of the Iroquois

Author: Matthew Dennis Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:
“The Life and Age of Woman,” by A. Alden, Barre, MA, ca. 1835. (LC-DIG-pga-0350)

The Legal Status of Women, 1776–1830

Author: Marylynn Salmon Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Abraham Lincoln, photographed by Mathew Brady, February 27, 1860. (GLC05136.01)

The Making of the President: Abraham Lincoln and the Election of 1860

Author: Harold Holzer Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:
Restaurant display supporting National Recovery Administration, ca. 1934. (NARA)

The New Deal, Then and Now

Author: Alan Brinkley Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics, Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Thomas Jefferson and John Adams

The Presidential Election of 1800: A Story of Crisis, Controversy, and Change

Author: Joanne B. Freeman Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Members of the National Woman's Party picket the White House, Library of Congres

The Progressive Era to the New Era, 1900-1929

Author: Daniel T. Rodgers Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Pueblo Revolt

Author: Edward Countryman Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels:
“Landing of Roger Williams,” (New York: Johnson Fry & Col, 1867) (GLC08878.0006)

The Puritans and Dissent: The Cases of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson

Author: Francis J. Bremer Curriculum Subjects: Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels:
Lawmakers Who Voted Aye for the 13th Amendment, ca. 1865 (GLC01230)

The Reconstruction Amendments: Official Documents as Social History

Author: Eric Foner Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Order to conscript Alabama slaves for the Confederate Army, 1864 (GLC06158.11)

The Riddles of “Confederate Emancipation”

Author: Bruce Levine Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Girls working in a box factory, Tampa FL, by Lewis Hine, ca. 1912 (NARA 523166)

The Rise of Industrial America, 1877-1900

Author: Richard White Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9

The Road to Revolution

Author: T. H. Breen Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
[Dividing the] National [Map]. [Cincinnati], 1860. (LC-DIG-ppmsca-33122)

The Road to War

Author: Chandra M. Manning Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
“Entrance of the American Army into New York, Novr. 25th, 1783,” published by Vi

The Social and Intellectual Legacy of the American Revolution

Author: Gary B. Nash Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Sample ballot card for the 1912 Republican National Convention. (GLC01487)

The Spectacles of 1912

Author: Patricia O’Toole Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Panorama of Chicago, ca. 1906, Universale View Co., Philadelphia, PA (LOC)

The Transnational Nature of the Progressive Era

Author: Daniel T. Rodgers Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The US and Spanish American Revolutions

Author: Jay Sexton Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels:
Note of 1 shilling, 6 pence, printed in the colony of New Jersey, 1776. (GLC)

The US Banking System: Origin, Development, and Regulation

Author: Richard Sylla Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Teddy Roosevelt in the Rough Riders, ca. 1898. (GLC07002.39)

Theodore Roosevelt: The Making of a Progressive Reformer

Author: Kathleen Dalton Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Thomas Jefferson and Deism

Author: Peter S. Onuf Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels:
Richard Nixon on the day of his resignation, August 9, 1974. (NARA ARC Id 194597

To Understand a Scandal: Watergate beyond Nixon

Author: David Sarias Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:
“Bostonian’s Paying the Excise-man” (London: Philip Dawe, 1774). (GLC04961.01)

Unruly Americans in the Revolution

Author: Woody Holton Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Athletic Sports, 1887. (Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Div.)

Why Sports History Is American History

Author: Mark Naison Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Jane Addams,Twenty Years at Hull-House (New York, 1910). (Gilder Lehrman Coll.)

Women and the Progressive Movement

Author: Miriam Cohen Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Conference of Republican National Committee Women, 1927. (LOC, P&P)

Women in American Politics in the Twentieth Century

Author: Sara Evans Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Justice of the Plains: The Movement Westward, John S. Curry (LC-DIG-highsm-02850

Women of the West

Author: Virginia Scharff Curriculum Subjects: Geography, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

“Half slave, half free”: Lincoln and the “House Divided”

Author: Gabor S. Boritt Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:
Abraham Lincoln’s notes for a speech on the abolition of slavery, ca. 1858.

“That glorious consummation”: Lincoln on the Abolition of Slavery

Author: Allen C. Guelzo Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:
Abraham Lincoln’s notes for a speech on slavery and American government, ca. 185

“To give all a chance”: Lincoln, Abolition, and Economic Freedom

Author: Lewis E. Lehrman Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: