Economics

The essays in this section have been written by leading scholars of American history. They provide additional depth on events and ideas referred to in the introductory essay and, in some cases, different interpretations by historians looking at the same events. These essays are particularly useful in introducing your students to one of the most exciting aspects of studying history—understanding the past from a variety of perspectives.

Commissioner of Labor Statistics explains loss of wages since 1929. (LOC, P&P)

Economic Policy through the Lens of History

Author: Roger E. A. Farmer Curriculum Subjects: Economics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Bank note from the Bank of the United States dated December 13, 1840. (GLC01994)

Getting Ready to Lead a World Economy: Enterprise in Nineteenth-Century America

Author: Joyce Appleby Curriculum Subjects: Economics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Note of 1 shilling, 6 pence, printed in the colony of New Jersey, 1776. (GLC)

The US Banking System: Origin, Development, and Regulation

Author: Richard Sylla Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Empire Building

Author: Robert W. Cherny Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography Grade Levels:

Immigration and Migration

Author: Hasia Diner Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Populism and Agrarian Discontent

Author: Michael Kazin Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Age of Reagan

Author: Gil Troy Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels:

The Gilded Age

Author: T. Jackson Lears Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels:

The Great Depression

Author: David M. Kennedy Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels:

World War I

Author: Jennifer D. Keene Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

American Indians

Author: Elliott West Curriculum Subjects: Economics, World History Grade Levels: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
A Vindication of the Character and Public Services of Andrew Jackson, 1828 (GLC)

Andrew Jackson’s Shifting Legacy

Author: Daniel Feller Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Coit Tower murals, San Francisco, CA (Carol Highsmith Archive, Lib. of Congress)

Are Artists “Workers”? Art and the New Deal

Author: Elizabeth Broun Curriculum Subjects: Art Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Reader in a cigar factory, Tampa, Fla., by Lewis Wickes Hines (LOC)

Bridging the Caribbean: Puerto Rican Roots in Nineteenth-Century America

Author: Virginia Sanchez Korrol Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Landing at Ellis Island, ca. 1902 (LC-USZ62-12595)

Coming to America: Ellis Island and New York City

Author: Vincent J. Cannato Curriculum Subjects: Economics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Conflict and Commerce: The Rise and Fall of New Netherland

Author: Simon Middleton Curriculum Subjects: Economics, World History Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Different Perspectives on the Civil Rights Movement

Author: Anthony J. Badger Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Photograph of Edison Machine Works in New York City, 1881. (GLC07616.05)

Edison’s Laboratory

Author: Paul Israel Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Detail from a Harper’s Weekly cartoon by Thomas Nast, February 26, 1870. (LOC)

Education Reform in Antebellum America

Author: Barbara Winslow Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels:
Flapper on the cover of Puck magazine, 1916. (Library of Congress P&P)

F. Scott Fitzgerald and the Age of Excess

Author: Joshua Zeitz Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Literature Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Adolf Hitler, n.d. (LOC) and Franklin Delano Roosevelt (GLC)

FDR and Hitler: A Study in Contrasts

Author: David M. Kennedy Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Franklin D. Roosevelt, c. December 27, 1933. (Library of Congress Prints and Pho

FDR’s First Inaugural Address

Author: Davis W. Houck Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels:
Advertisement for shares in the Union Pacific Railroad, Harper’s Weekly, August

Financing the Transcontinental Railroad

Author: Maury Klein Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, Government and Civics Grade Levels:
Family in Chinatown, San Francisco, CA. (LC-G4085- 0192 <P&P>)

History Times: A Nation of Immigrants

Author: Gilder Lehrman Institute Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Grade Levels: 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
“A View of the Town of Boston,” by Paul Revere, 1770, detail. (GLC02873)

History Times: The Colonial Era

Author: the Gilder Lehrman Institute Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, Government and Civics, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels: 2, 3, 4, 5

Indian Slavery in the Americas

Author: Alan Gallay Curriculum Subjects: Economics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Jamestown and the Founding of English America

Author: James Horn Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
John Brown, ca. June 1859, painted photograph. (GLC04447)

John Brown: Villain or Hero?

Author: Steven Mintz Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Literature, Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Ford Local 600 of the CIO in the Labor Day parade in Detroit MI, 1942. (LOC P&P)

Labor Day: From Protest to Picnics

Author: Joshua B. Freeman Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Lincoln

Author: Allen C. Guelzo Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Assembly room for chassis and motors, Detroit, MI, 1929 (LOC, P&P)

Motor City: The Story of Detroit

Author: Thomas J. Sugrue Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Native American Discoveries of Europe

Author: Daniel K. Richter Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Detail from the Preamble to the US Constitution, 1787. (GLC03585)

Ordinary Americans and the Constitution

Author: Gary B. Nash Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Official US Bulletin, January 29, 1919. (GLC01668)

Prohibition and Its Effects

Author: Lisa Andersen Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
“An Appeal to the Women of the United States” (Washington DC, 1871) (GLC08999)

Reconstruction and the Battle for Woman Suffrage

Author: Ellen DuBois Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Columbian Exchange

Author: Alfred Crosby Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, Science, Technology, Engineering and Math, World History Grade Levels: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
“The Florida Case before the Electoral Commission,” Cornelia Fassett (US Senate)

The Contentious Election of 1876

Author: Michael F. Holt Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels:

The Discovery of the Americas and the Transatlantic Slave Trade

Author: Ira Berlin Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels:
Emancipation Proclamation (Chicago: Rufus Blanchard, ca. 1863–64) (GLC05508.272)

The Emancipation Proclamation: Bill of Lading or Ticket to Freedom?

Author: Allen C. Guelzo Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
General George S. Patton Addressing the 80th Infantry (GLC06760.26)

The Great Depression and World War II, 1929-1945

Author: David M. Kennedy Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Breadline in New York, ca. 1930. (Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Div.)

The Great Depression: An Overview

Author: David M. Kennedy Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Franklin D. Roosevelt to Henry T. Rainey, June 10, 1933. (GLC)

The Hundred Days and Beyond: What Did the New Deal Accomplish?

Author: Anthony J. Badger Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Impact of Horse Culture

Author: Elliott West Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography Grade Levels:
Western High School Girls’ Basketball, Washington, DC, 1899. (Courtesy Library o

The Impact of Title IX

Author: Barbara Winslow Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Union Stock Yards, Chicago, 1903. (LC-USZ62-51793)

The Jungle and the Progressive Era

Author: Robert W. Cherny Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Letterhead from Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, 1910, detail. (GLC)

The Myth of the Frontier: Progress or Lost Freedom

Author: John Mack Faragher Curriculum Subjects: Art, Economics, Geography, Literature Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Restaurant display supporting National Recovery Administration, ca. 1934. (NARA)

The New Deal, Then and Now

Author: Alan Brinkley Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics, Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Members of the National Woman's Party picket the White House, Library of Congres

The Progressive Era to the New Era, 1900-1929

Author: Daniel T. Rodgers Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Girls working in a box factory, Tampa FL, by Lewis Hine, ca. 1912 (NARA 523166)

The Rise of Industrial America, 1877-1900

Author: Richard White Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9
[Dividing the] National [Map]. [Cincinnati], 1860. (LC-DIG-ppmsca-33122)

The Road to War

Author: Chandra M. Manning Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Panorama of Chicago, ca. 1906, Universale View Co., Philadelphia, PA (LOC)

The Transnational Nature of the Progressive Era

Author: Daniel T. Rodgers Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
United Fruit Company banana conveyors in New Orleans, LA, ca. 1910 (LC-D4-39636)

The United States and the Caribbean, 1877–1920

Author: Jason Colby Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels:

The US and Spanish American Revolutions

Author: Jay Sexton Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Geography, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels:
“Bostonian’s Paying the Excise-man” (London: Philip Dawe, 1774). (GLC04961.01)

Unruly Americans in the Revolution

Author: Woody Holton Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
George Washington to Sir John Sinclair, December 11, 1796. (GLC08095p12)

Washington Encourages a Prospective Immigrant: The Economic Potential of the States in 1796

Author: Mary-Jo Kline and Theodore J. Crackel Curriculum Subjects: Geography Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
An Oklahoma migrant family in California, 1935, by Dorothea Lange. (LOC)

Women and the Great Depression

Author: Susan Ware Curriculum Subjects: Economics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Justice of the Plains: The Movement Westward, John S. Curry (LC-DIG-highsm-02850

Women of the West

Author: Virginia Scharff Curriculum Subjects: Geography, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+