Marcus Garvey (1887–1940) was a Jamaican leader who organized the first major black nationalist movement in America. In Jamaica, Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), and in 1916 he traveled to the United States to establish UNIA branches in Harlem and other urban centers. Garvey promoted black pride and self-sufficiency, but some of his ideas, such as self-segregation, were vehemently opposed by other black leaders, including W.E.B. Du Bois of the NAACP. Garvey established the Negro Factories Corporation and helped to create a number of black-owned businesses, but his entrepreneurial efforts ultimately led to his demise. In 1922, Garvey and other UNIA members were arrested for illegal fundraising activities. He was convicted and imprisoned until 1927. Upon his release, Garvey was deported to Jamaica, where he unsuccessfully tried to reignite the movement he had created in America.

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