Mark Twain, or Samuel Longhorn Clemens (1835–1910), was a famed American writer best known for his novels The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885). Born in Missouri, Twain took up his pseudonym and began his writing career as a Nevada newspaper reporter in 1862. He moved to California in 1865 and wrote the short story “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County,” which was published two years later in a volume of the same name. In 1869, he published The Innocents Abroad, an account of his travels to Europe and the Holy Land.Twain soon became an internationally known writer and humorist. His first novel, The Gilded Age, written with Charles Dudley Warner, was published in 1873 as a satire of the era’s capitalism and corruption. Twain continued writing for the rest of his life, generating classics including Tom Sawyer (1876), Life on the Mississippi (1883), Huckleberry Finn (1885), and others, and cementing his reputation as a great American author.

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