Chester A. Arthur (1829–1886) became the twenty-first president of the United States upon the assassination of President James Garfield. Arthur was elected on the Republican ticket as Garfield’s vice president in 1880 and became his successor when Garfield was shot by Charles Guiteau in July 1881. During his presidency, Arthur denounced patronage in favor of merit-based government appointments and promotions, supporting the Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883. He also signed the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act, suspending Chinese immigration for ten years, and supported the strengthening of the US Navy. Arthur did not run in the 1884 presidential election.

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