The American Civil War

The essays in this section have been written by leading scholars of American history. They provide additional depth on events and ideas referred to in the introductory essay and, in some cases, different interpretations by historians looking at the same events. These essays are particularly useful as informational texts to introduce your students to one of the most exciting aspects of studying history—understanding the past from a variety of perspectives.

Field Relief Work at Gettysburg

Author: Jane E. Schultz Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels:
Walt Whitman, 1863 (Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division)

Lincoln and Whitman

Author: David S. Reynolds Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, Literature Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Essays from Other Sub-Eras

Abraham Lincoln, by Mathew Brady, February 27, 1860. (GLC05136.01)

Lincoln’s Religion

Author: Richard Carwardine Curriculum Subjects: Religion and Philosophy Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Photograph of American Indians by William Hicks Jackson, 1871. (GLC03095.97)

The Civil War and Reconstruction in the American West

Author: Elliott West Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
George Ripley, Margaret Fuller, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Elizabeth Peabody (LOC)

Transcendentalism and Social Reform

Author: Philip F. Gura Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: