Facing the New Millennium

The essays in this section have been written by leading scholars of American history. They provide additional depth on events and ideas referred to in the introductory essay and, in some cases, different interpretations by historians looking at the same events. These essays are particularly useful as informational texts to introduce your students to one of the most exciting aspects of studying history—understanding the past from a variety of perspectives.

Barack Obama, January 13, 2009, one week before his inauguration as President of

A More Perfect Union? Barack Obama and the Politics of Unity

Author: Thomas J. Sugrue Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:
Florida Certificate of Ascertainment 2000 (NARA)

Hanging by a Chad—or Not: The 2000 Presidential Election

Author: James Gormly Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels:

Pop Music and the Spatialization of Race in the 1990s

Author: Mark Anthony Neal Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels:

September 11, 2001

Author: the National September 11 Memorial & Museum Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: K, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
George Sale, The Koran . . . 2 vols. London, 1764 (LOC, Rare Bks., S.1457)

Teaching American History to Muslim Exchange Students

Author: Ted Widmer Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Live Fire Exercise. Courtesy of the US Army Center of Military History

Technology in the Persian Gulf War of 1991

Author: Robert Citino Curriculum Subjects: Science, Technology, Engineering and Math, World History Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

Essays from Other Sub-Eras

9/11 and Springsteen

Author: Craig Werner Curriculum Subjects: Art, Government and Civics, World History Grade Levels: 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Million Native American March, 2003, Washington, DC. (Carol Highsmith, LOC)

A New Era of American Indian Autonomy

Author: Ned Blackhawk Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Landing at Ellis Island, ca. 1902 (LC-USZ62-12595)

Coming to America: Ellis Island and New York City

Author: Vincent J. Cannato Curriculum Subjects: Economics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Commissioner of Labor Statistics explains loss of wages since 1929. (LOC, P&P)

Economic Policy through the Lens of History

Author: Roger E. A. Farmer Curriculum Subjects: Economics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Oath of Allegiance of Mikael Amerikian, 1931 (NARA ARC # 595054)

Immigrant Fiction: Exploring an American Identity

Author: Phillip Lopate Curriculum Subjects: Literature Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
The Shah of Iran welcomed by the Carters, 1977. (Jimmy Carter Library)

Iran and the United States in the Cold War

Author: Malcolm Byrne Curriculum Subjects: Religion and Philosophy, World History Grade Levels: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Assembly room for chassis and motors, Detroit, MI, 1929 (LOC, P&P)

Motor City: The Story of Detroit

Author: Thomas J. Sugrue Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Louis Armstrong, 1953 (Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division)

New Orleans and the History of Jazz

Author: Loren Schoenberg Curriculum Subjects: Art, Geography Grade Levels: 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Ronald Reagan at the Berlin Wall, 1987. (Ronald Reagan Library)

Ronald Reagan and the End of the Cold War: The Debate Continues

Author: Michael Cox Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels:
Sandra Day O'Connor, ca. 1982. (Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Div.)

Sandra Day O’Connor: A Life of Action

Author: Meryl Justin Chertoff Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Western High School Girls’ Basketball, Washington, DC, 1899. (Courtesy Library o

The Impact of Title IX

Author: Barbara Winslow Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+

The Supreme Court Then and Now

Author: A. E. Dick Howard Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
The Nixons at the Great Wall of China, February 1972. (NARA ARC id 194421)

The United States and China during the Cold War

Author: Warren I. Cohen Curriculum Subjects: World History Grade Levels:
Note of 1 shilling, 6 pence, printed in the colony of New Jersey, 1776. (GLC)

The US Banking System: Origin, Development, and Regulation

Author: Richard Sylla Curriculum Subjects: Economics, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Athletic Sports, 1887. (Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Div.)

Why Sports History Is American History

Author: Mark Naison Curriculum Subjects: Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
The County Election, based on a painting by George C. Bingham, 1854. (Gilder Leh

Winning the Vote: A History of Voting Rights

Author: Steven Mintz Curriculum Subjects: Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+
Justice of the Plains: The Movement Westward, John S. Curry (LC-DIG-highsm-02850

Women of the West

Author: Virginia Scharff Curriculum Subjects: Geography, Government and Civics Grade Levels: 9, 10, 11, 12, 13+