Historian Frederick Jackson Turner presented his “frontier thesis” in an address in Chicago, the site of the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition. Turner pointed to expansion as the most important factor in American history. He claimed that “the existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward explain American development.” In 1890, however, the Census Bureau stated that all the land within the United States was claimed, and there was no longer a frontier. “Now, four centuries from...
A major earthquake—later estimated to be between 7.7 and 7.9 on the Richter scale—struck San Francisco at 5:12 a.m. The devastation grew as broken gas lines caused widespread fires and much of the city was destroyed. As many as 3,000 people were killed, and more than half of the survivors found themselves homeless.
Red Cloud, an Oglala Sioux chief, led resistance against the US Army’s effort to built forts along the Bozeman Trail in Lakota territory. Red Cloud’s series of successful assaults ended with the Fort Laramie Treaty in 1868.
The US signed a treaty with the Lakota Sioux setting aside the Black Hills of Dakota as part of the Great Sioux Reservation and protecting that region from white settlement. The treaty also provided for the removal of US military forts along the Bozeman Trail.