The People’s Liberation Army, led by Communist leader Mao Zedong, ousted Chiang Kai-Shek’s Nationalist government in China. Mao Zedong declared the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, and Nationalist forces and sympathizers were forced to retreat to Taiwan.
In Dennis et al. v. United States, the Supreme Court upheld a law making it illegal to “knowingly or willfully advocate . . . the necessity, desirability, or propriety of overthrowing any government in the United States by force or violence.”
In his State of the Union address, President Harry S. Truman announced his “Fair Deal,” a series of proposed domestic reforms, including the expansion of many New Deal policies. Truman’s proposals included social security expansion, a minimum-wage increase, labor law changes, aid for education, and health insurance reform.
President Harry S. Truman signed Executive Order 9835, which established the Federal Employee Loyalty Program. The program instituted invasive measures designed to identify and remove Communist sympathizers from government.
The Geneva Agreement ended fighting between the French and the Viet Minh in Indochina. To American disapproval, the truce divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel into the Communist North and the anti-Communist South.
George Kennan, a US diplomat serving in Moscow, sent his “Long Telegram” to Washington. In it, Kennan proposed a policy of containment for handling diplomatic matters with the Soviet Union. Kennan’s ideas about containment and the Soviet Union shaped US foreign policy throughout the Cold War.