Written anonymously by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions encouraged states to nullify unconstitutional federal laws. The Resolutions were a direct response to the Alien and Sedition Acts.
Elbridge Gerry and George Mason called for a “bill of rights” in the Constitution in the last days of the Constitutional Convention. Their proposal was not included in the Constitution, but James Madison pushed through a bill of rights in the first Congress in 1789.
The landmark case of Marbury v. Madison (1803) established the practice of judicial review. William Marbury, to whom President Adams had given a judicial appointment near the end of his term, sued to have the Jefferson administration deliver the commission. Marshall wrote the unanimous opinion finding that, while Marbury was entitled to his commission, the Court could not deliver it because the section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 permitting the Court to issue writs was inconsistent with the Constitution. Thus the Supreme Court...
During the creation of the new United States government in 1787, Federalists supported the adoption of the new Constitution. Federalists included Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison—the writers of the Federalist Papers. In 1791, Hamilton and other Federalists established the Federalist Party, which supported strong central government and a loose interpretation of the Constitution.