The Kyoto Protocol treaty was adopted by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The protocol was an agreement between member countries for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in coming years. The United States was the only industrialized country in the world that refused to ratify the protocol, though it remained a member of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
The independent state of Israel was declared after the United Nations approved the partition of Palestine into Arab and Jewish states in November 1947. The United States immediately recognized Israel but many Arab countries protested its existence. Israel was soon attacked by a coalition of Arab armies and responded by conquering Palestinian towns; the armed conflict continues to this day.
After Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded Kuwait in August 1990, President Bush headed a coalition to set a deadline for Iraqi withdrawal. When Iraq failed to leave Kuwait, on January 17, 1991, the US-led coalition began a series of air attacks on Iraq and Iraqi-controlled regions of Kuwait. A ground assault began on February 23, and Kuwait was liberated on February 28, with Iraq accepting the conditions of a UN resolution for a ceasefire.
US marines landed in Mogadishu, Somalia, to conduct a humanitarian mission to end the looting and extortion that led to widespread starvation in the country. In October 1993, however, US forces faced Somali militia fighters in a battle that left eighteen Americans dead. In 1995, the UN withdrew its forces altogether, leaving Somalia without a government and under continual conflict and famine.
After forces in the Serbian province of Kosovo began a fight for independence, Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic carried out an ethnic-cleansing campaign against Kosovo. In an attempt to stop the escalation of war in the Balkans, NATO and US forces bombed Serbia until June 1999. Milosevic then agreed to withdraw troops from Kosovo and recognize the province’s independence.
Thousands of US troops were sent to Haiti to restore the Haitian government that had been overthrown by military forces in 1990. Before a forced invasion could commence, however, a delegation led by Jimmy Carter negotiated with the country’s military government for a non-violent transition of power, allowing US and UN troops to enter the country as a peacekeeping and humanitarian force.
The United Nations (UN) is an international organization established in 1945 to promote peace and international cooperation. The UN aims to foster and maintain international peace, support human rights, resolve disputes, and foster education, health care, and economic trade.