To maintain the army and repay war debts, Parliament decided to impose charges on colonial trade. It passed the Sugar Act, a law that imposed duties on foreign wines, coffee, textiles, and indigo imported into the colonies, and that also expanded the customs service. Britain also required colonial vessels to fill out papers detailing their cargo and destination. The Royal Navy patrolled the coast to search for smugglers, who were tried in special courts without a jury.
To save the East India Company from bankruptcy, Parliament implemented the Tea Act, authorizing the company to sell a huge tea surplus directly to the public without payment of duty. The action outraged established tea merchants and effectively gave a monopoly to the East India Company.