Chief Joseph (ca. 1840–1904) was the Nez Perce leader who in 1877 attempted to lead his people on a three-month march from their homes in the Wallowa Valley in Oregon to Canada pursued by the US Army. He eventually surrendered upon being promised that the Nez Perce could return to Idaho. The federal government broke its promise, however, and the Nez Perce were removed to Indian Territory in Kansas and Oklahoma.
(Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River)
Key Groups: Adena (500 BC), Hopewell (100 BC)
Religion and Culture: Known as mound builders because they buried the dead in large earth mounds, these groups lived in small farming villages, which were likely run by leaders of clans (relatives). The villages grew and became increasingly complex, building trade networks and creating elaborate artwork using materials from as far away as the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes. Adena culture was...