The Anasazi culture of prehistoric American Indians developed and flourished, ca. 800–1100, in the Southwest near the present-day borders of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. Pueblo tribes later developed from the Anasazi.
Native American populations in New England, with no immunity to European diseases, were nearly eradicated by a mysterious epidemic—likely smallpox. Between 1616 and 1619, the population of the Massachusett and other Algonquin tribes was reduced by as much as 90 percent by disease.
Mississippian culture grew in the southern Mississippi River Valley. The Mississippian American Indians were farmers and mound builders, and the culture spread along rivers through modern-day central and eastern North America. Some aspects of Mississippian life grew out of earlier regional cultures, but the Mississippians were also largely influenced by contact with Mayan and Zapotec traders.
Hohokam culture of prehistoric American Indians developed in the Southwest, ca. 600. Hohokam culture grew along the Gila and Salt Rivers, and Hohokam people created irrigation canals that allowed for major agricultural development.
The Columbian Exchange refers to the flow of goods between the Americas, Europe, and Africa that followed Columbus’s widely advertised “discovery” of the New World. People, animals, plants, and microorganisms passed from continent to continent affecting virtually all aspects of the environment in all three. For American Indians, disease was the most significant aspect of the exchange with as many as 90 percent of the Native population dying out during the first century of colonization. For Africans and Europeans the most important items...