Mississippian culture grew in the southern Mississippi River Valley. The Mississippian American Indians were farmers and mound builders, and the culture spread along rivers through modern-day central and eastern North America. Some aspects of Mississippian life grew out of earlier regional cultures, but the Mississippians were also largely influenced by contact with Mayan and Zapotec traders.
Hearing of Grant’s victory at Vicksburg five days earlier, Confederate forces surrendered Port Hudson, Louisiana, after a forty-eight day siege—the longest ever in the United States. The surrender restored control of the Mississippi to the Union, ending the war in the West. Port Hudson was also the first major battle in which black Union troops participated.
The Quebec Act enlarged French Quebec to cover the area as far west as the Mississippi River and as far south as the Ohio River. French law prevailed and the Catholic Church had a privileged status there.
The Black Hawk War began when Black Hawk, chief of the Sauk Indians, crossed the Mississippi River to plant corn on the tribe's old fields in Illinois. Capt. Abraham Lincoln and Lieut. Jefferson Davis took part in the conflict. The Sauk surrendered in August, after many older men, women, and children were massacred in Wisconsin while carrying white flags.
President Jackson signed the Indian Removal Acts, which authorized aggressive efforts to open Indian lands to whites and promised financial compensation to Indian tribes that agreed to resettle on lands west of the Mississippi River.